GE2R [Global Entrepreneurship/ Employment Results]

Objective: Create a substantive set of measures of economic and employment development directly resulting from entrepreneurship and SME education and training. These metrics are gathered annually similar to the GEM study and the Kauffman Firm Survey [KFS].

For the past 30 years the field of entrepreneurship education and training has rocketed throughout the world.The excitement for this "movement" has been and is astounding. Before the onset of academic entrepreneurship small business management courses existed in some colleges. Often these courses were created to take advantage of the USA Small Business Institute Program [SBI, 1972-1995] to engage advanced students in consulting to small business with SBA loans. At its peak ~500 colleges and universities taught small business management courses integrated with SBI funds. When the SBI program ended, most of the small business courses were eliminated. In ~1980 or so, entrepreneurship courses and centers began a slow but ascending popularity. Presently almost all b-schools worldwide include entrepreneurship curricula. Measurement of the economic impacts of these programs are practically nonexistent. The ICSB Foundation intends to correct this omission.

Only the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has developed metrics and publishes findings about Companies founded by and still operatedby MIT graduates. This ongoing MIT follow up research also measures these MIT fomented companies employment growth, contributions to Gross Domestic Product and National Income, plus wealth creation. In contrast to the MIT measurements, most promotions of the "successes" of entrepreneurship education and training programs count secondary actions and notmacroeconomic results. So, the entrepreneurship movement “results” focus on such measures as: number of participants in courses or training programs, number of business plan competitions won, rankings in various magazines, numbers of faculty teaching entrepreneurship and SME courses, plus self-centered bragging to promote their effectiveness. In other words only secondary measures are utilized to "prove the successes" of the burgeoning entrepreneurship and SME "movement." The flashy information about such ratings permeate the pamphlets and literature promoting the superiority of the many Centers, Faculty, and courses. After 30+ years of investment of money and personnel to establish academic entrepreneurship, it is time to provide longitudinal metrics to measure actual results of what entrepreneurship programs claim sans hard data economic measurement.

The International Council for Small Business [ICSB] with affiliates worldwide is uniquely positioned to design long-term research to measure the global macroeconomic impacts' that academic entrepreneurship, mentoring, and training provide. Presently any real effects are unmeasured. Legislatures, academic administrators, charitable foundations and policy leaders worldwide can make more enlightened investment decisions if based on rigorous data and information.

The international Council for Small Business [ICSB: enhancing entrepreneurship worldwide] and its ICSB Foundation seek to create the GE2R ongoing annual worldwide data gathering and analysis. We intend to mobilize our global affiliates as the consortium to conduct this highly relevant research each year. We will consult with the very successful Global Entrepreneurship Monitor [GEM] and the Kauffman Foundation Firm Survey [KFS] to determine if there are any possibilities for cross-experience interactions. What the ICSB Foundation portends to study is quite different from what the GEM and KFS provide.

The ICSB Foundation's next step is to complete a work plan and design that succinctly describes the mission of the research mission described above. We intend to circulate a RFP to ICSB global affiliates and other willing and capable respondents. This RFP will be exact about what is expected in any responses.

The ICSB Foundation seeks to partner with an interested Foundation to facilitate financially the design and implementation of this much needed data to guide world leaders and policy makers in making rational decisions about economic development and employment creation policies.

Please address any questions or comments to:; Phone: 1-303-442-431


The Bottom Billions Report

"The poor also have the right to buy and sell" exclaimed Salem Bouazizi, surviving brother of Takek Bouazizi, who is self-immolated in Tunisia for triggering the Arab Spring uprisings.

"The business in America is business" exclaimed President Calvin Coolidge in 1925, when the United States had an unemployment rate of 5.2% and was facing the on-set of The Great Depression in 1929. “But of course the accumulation of wealth cannot be justified as the chief end of existence” he later said.

So, who should we focus on to help promote growth? To create jobs? Does the bottom billion have a role in this process? These questions and more are part of the Bottom Billions Study; topic of business creation amongst the bottom billion - in other words, the 1.9 billion world citizens surviving on less than $1.50 USD per day!

“The alternatives are much worse,” explained Paul Reynolds, Research Professor of Management at GW. “Piracy off Somalia, kidnapping in Latin America, mafia in Russia and even terrorism in the Middle East; are all examples of things people are faced with as a means to make their mark in the world when there is no alternative.” In Egypt, it takes more than 500 days to start a business using the legal, state guidelines. In Libya, it would cost you more than $4,000 USD to register your business. In Tunisia, you must wait nearly 143 days to begin operations.

According to research presented by Mr. Reynolds, more than ⅓ of those engaged in business creation are from the bottom billion, and concentrated in developing countries. These findings support Cleveland Charles’ mission at the U.S. Department of State to improve the enabling environments for entrepreneurs around the world so that job creation, economic liberalization and civil society can all become realizations, and byproducts of entrepreneurial activity.

The Global Entrepreneurship Program (GEP), according to Mr. Charles, define entrepreneurship as a capacity and willingness to conceive, organize, and manage a productive venture – with all its risks. In this light, GEP works to ease demands on entrepreneurs like the 500 day wait times and $4,000 in registration fees. Several strategies for including the bottom billion in the world economy have been proposed. One is to encourage major multi-national corporations to expand sales and production operations; another to identify and assist high potential new and small firms in developing countries.

The latter of the two reflects more closely the opinion of Alan Johnson at the IFC. Not only has substantial research in developing countries indicated that a small percentage of high growth firms are responsible for a substantial proportion of job creation, but a term has been coined to describe these firms - Gazelles. According to the IFC, gazelles are private businesses having at least $250,000 USD in annual revenues and growing at a rate of at least 20% per year over a 4-year period. the IFC, along with other partners, recognize the value of gazelles as significant. As Mr. Johnson outlined, various programs and initiatives like the online SME toolkit have been established to cultivating high-growth firms versus trying to increase entrepreneurship overall with uncertain public policy. Remember, when it comes to world economies, one size does not fit all!

Talking of Egypt, and their large youth population, Ayman Adhair of Global Integrated Management Consulting explained that reforms in the education system must be undertaken to enable the country to become a main driving factor in the development of entrepreneurship. Restructuring the educational system to foster creativity and independent thinking is of cheif importance if Egypt wishes to produce the next Facebook or Google. Without the introduction of management skills modules at secondary schools, vocational institutions and universities, young people in Egypt will be destined for the same old path - government or public sector job.

Dan Salcedo, CEO and Founder of, is optimistic that e-commerce tools and other innovations like his can be a means for the bottom billion to make their way in the world. As Mr. Salcedo explained, “recent advances have changed everything!” The proliferation of low cost devices (mobile phones, netbooks, tablets) greatly expands mobile networks. Social networking services demonstrated how to leverage the power of trust. Internet costs continue to drop (see Google Docs and Apps), while its reach/speed increase. is developed e-commerce platform for artisans and SMEs worldwide that is supported by the World Bank, USAID, InterAmerican Development Bank, Rockefeller, Oracle, eBay, and more. Users can build an online catelog on Mr. Salcedo’s site for free using Google Applications to enable sales to be made online. Pages can be personalize with own banner/logo, choice of templates, fonts, colors, etc. and enabled for credit card transactions.

So, the question remains, to invest in Gazelles or not? (Be careful, it’s a trick question).

Copies of PPT slides:


Journal of Small Business Management (JSBM)

Impact Factor: 1.392
5 year Impact Factor: 2.146

Print ISSN: 0047-2778
Online ISSN: 1540-627X
Frequency: Quarterly


Editorial Statistics for 2012:
Acceptance Rate – 8 %
Total Manuscripts Received – 625+
Type of Review – Double‐blind peer review
No. of External Reviewers – 300
No. of In-House Reviewers – 175
Time to Review (weeks to first decision) – 9 weeks
Desk rejection rate – 20%
Time to Publication – 14 months
Reviewer’s Comments – All authors obtain a copy of the reviewer’s comments in the decision letter

The primary purpose of the Journal of Small Business Management (JSBM) is to publish scholarly research articles in the fields of small business management and entrepreneurship. As the official journal of the International Council for Small Business (ICSB), the JSBM is recognized as a primary instrument for projecting and supporting the goals and objectives of this organization, which include scholarly research and the free exchange of ideas. The journal, which is circulated in 60 countries around the world, is a leader in the field of small business research. JSBM membership is for “personal” subscriptions only and for personal use.

Mission Statement:
All manuscripts should address research issues in a rigorous way using qualitative, quantitative or a combination of these techniques; however, JSBM encourages the incorporation of pragmatic advice for practitioners based on the research results.
> To submit a manuscript online, please visit


George T. Solomon, D.B.A.
Editor-in-Chief, Journal for Small Business Management (JSBM)
Associate Professor of Management,The George Washington University, USA
Co-Director, Center For Entrepreneurial Excellence (CFEE)

Business Manager

Michael Battaglia
Business Manager, Journal of Small Business Management (JSBM)
Operations Manager, International Council for Small Business (ICSB)
The George Washington University, Washington DC, USA
Phone: 001-202-994-0704